http://www.laprensa.com.ni/archivo/2...s/188377.shtml

Ana Adela Manzanares, of 79 years of age, wakes up every day of the week at 5 in the morning to commence her household chores, later at 10 am she heads to buy bread, bolillos and cake which she then sells in different barrios of District 6 of Managua. This is her typical routine for the past 60 years and how she earns a living.

Daily she must sell 35 cakes and 5 bags of 20 bolillos to gain 30 and 40 córdobas, which she uses to pay her electricity and water and is able to buy a bit of food.

In Nicaragua, "Instituto Nicaragüense de Estadísticas y Censos" (INEC), now "Instituto Nacional de Información para el Desarrollo" (Inide), says that 63.33% of the Population works by selling in the streets, ironing clothes o washing clothes, polishing shoes, working in pulperias, a position selling in the market or other micro business.

There are more than 1.3 million Nicaraguans in these jobs, with low levels of education and without benefits of social security, they have a fixed salary, that does not include paid vacations.

Doña Ana Adela, whome her clients call “La Abuela” (the grandmother), knows how to count and read, but she only studied up till the first grade of grade school.

Since she was young, she remembers that she would have to iron clothes and do domestic work and when she could not deal with employers of the domestic work any more she began selling bread, the only job she could find that would pay for her to feed her 13 children.

There is obviously a relation between illiteracy and low levels of education, with the very low qualification of labor. The ideal average for a developing country in education is of people who at least passed the 9th grade. In Nicaragua the average is of 4th grade.

The sociologist, Cirilo Otero, says that the problem one of the main problems is that the most qualified people emigrate in search of better jobs elsewhere.

40.7% of employed Nicaraguans have only studied through grade school and another 29.8% have reached secondary school. While 12% have gotten to University level and 2.8% have technical training. 14.3% have not recieved any formal education.

Nicaragüenses do not lack "Ingenuity". For they are able to get food on the table for themselves and their family. These jobs however are only temporary and can only provide food, they do not promote sustainable jobs nor are productive. They do not increase the gross domestic product.

Officially the national unemployment rate is estimateed at 5.6%, however experts believe that the actual rate is more like 58% including sub employed.

“La Abuela” finishes her day at 7 at night, when her basket of bread is empty. She worked 14 hours, double that of a official job. She brought home 40 cordobas.